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Quand la nuit nuit : Pollution lumineuse

Article publié le 23 juillet 2009

Gaspillage d’énergie, gaz à effet de serre, conséquences économiques, perte de la biodiversité, étoiles en voie de disparition, ou encore perturbation de la santé humaine, la pollution lumineuse est pointée du doigt par de nombreux spécialistes.

Quand la nuit nuit : Pollution lumineuse

La pollution lumineuse équivaux aux conséquences néfastes de l’éclairage artificiel sur l’environnement. Gaspillage d’énergie, gaz à effet de serre, conséquences économiques, perte de la biodiversité, étoiles en voie de disparition, ou encore perturbation de la santé humaine, la pollution lumineuse est pointée du doigt par de nombreux spécialistes. Trop longtemps ignorée, la pollution lumineuse figure dans le projet de loi relatif au Grenelle de l’environnement. Serions-nous en marche vers une reconnaissance de la pollution lumineuse ? Quelles retombées positives pouvons-nous espérer ?

Selon le Ministère de l’Ecologie, l’objectif “aujourd’hui, n’est pas d’éclairer moins mais d’éclairer mieux, afin de concilier les exigences de notre société moderne, notamment en termes de sécurité, avec une meilleure gestion de l’éclairage”. Dans le cadre du Grenelle de l’environnement, la réduction de la pollution lumineuse est donc mentionnée comme “un objectif que l’on peut atteindre aisément, dès aujourd’hui”. Des mesures sont donc actuellement à l’étude pour réduire l’éclairage nocturne :

  • Etablissement de spécifications techniques sur les éclairages
  • Contrôle de l’intensité lumineuse selon les besoins
  • Interdiction temporaire ou permanente de certains types d’éclairages
  • Utilisation de lampes et ampoules basse consommation
  • Extinction des lampadaires une partie de la nuit…

Les retombées positives de l’application de telles mesures seraient nombreuses. En France, les dernières enquêtes nationales notent que l’éclairage public représente en moyenne 48% du budget en électricité des communes et est responsable de 4% des émissions totales de gaz à effet de serre. Selon l’ADEME, 30% de cette facture d’électricité pourrait être diminuée, ce qui retirerait chaque année 185 000 tonnes de CO2 de l’atmosphère.

Par ailleurs, la pollution lumineuse n’est pas seulement un gouffre énergétique et financier. Les halos lumineux qui ne cessent de progresser au-dessus des villes brisent l’alternance naturelle du jour et de la nuit. Cela perturbe la faune et la flore, causant ainsi une perte de la biodiversité. La migration (désorientation des espèces), la chaîne alimentaire naturelle (chasse), la reproduction ou encore la pollinisation de nombreuses espèces sont perturbées.

De plus, la pollution lumineuse participe à l’extinction de nombreuses espèces, comme les papillons nocturnes qui meurent d’épuisement autour de ces “pièges” de lumière. Ce “suréclairage” est ainsi la deuxième cause de mortalité pour les insectes nocturnes et pollinisateurs après les produits phytosanitaires. Le ciel nocturne serait également en voie de disparition puisque l’excès d’éclairage nocturne masque 90% des étoiles dans les métropoles. C’est pourquoi, il faut vite adopter ces mesures pour préserver les écosystèmes et la biodiversité.

L’homme ne serait pas non plus épargné par la pollution lumineuse. Selon le Ministère de l’Ecologie, notre santé est en jeu : “éblouissement, troubles du sommeil, facteur possible d’incidence des cancers…” Cette pollution dont s’entoure l’humanité est donc un phénomène mondial important. Près de 20% de la surface de la terre peut être considérée comme atteinte par ce fléau lumineux. En France, seul un petit triangle dans le Quercy et une partie de la Corse sont épargnés.

Pour la première fois en France, la pollution lumineuse est sur le point d’être reconnue juridiquement dans le champ des pollutions, au même titre que celles de l’air ou de l’eau, et inscrite dans le Code de l’Environnement. Le projet de loi est en marche : “La pollution lumineuse représente trios enjeux en un : la réalisation d’économies d’énergie, la protection des écosystèmes et surtout l’assurance de permettre à nos enfants de s’émerveiller du spectacle des étoiles”. Bien que Paris soit surnommée la “Ville Lumière”, est-ce possible de l’imaginer un jour dans le noir ?


Développement durable Pollution Gaz à effet de serre Pollution lumineuse

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