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Quelle est l'empreinte carbone d'Internet ?

Article publié le 12 octobre 2010

Quelle est l'empreinte carbone d'Internet ?
Allons droit au but, Internet « pèse » près de 300 millions de tonnes de Co2 par an, comme si chaque Français effectuait 2 fois le trajet Paris New-York chaque année. Nous avions déjà dressé un bilan graphique de ce que consommait Internet en énergie (les datas centers consomment 1% de l’énergie mondiale). Cleantechies nous précise ce qu’est l’empreinte carbone de l’Internet.

Il est évidemment compliqué d’établir précisément le bilan carbone de l’Internet, et pas seulement parce qu’il s’agit d’un réseau. Il serait déjà très complexe de savoir ce que consomment l’ensemble des machines qui « produisent » ou « consomment » du web. Mais au-delà de ces chiffres, comment faire la part des activités hors ligne (la rédaction d’un document texte, par exemple) de la navigation en ligne ?

L’un des points de départ d’un tel calcul est donc les fameux datas centers, dont les propriétaires s’échinent à réduire la consommation énergétique (il faut beaucoup d’électricité pour refroidir les salles pleines de serveurs que sont ces datas centers, certains ont eu des idées innovantes à ce sujet). Selon une étude du cabinet Gartner, ces datas centers représentent 25% de l’énergie consommée par le secteur des télécommunications, soit 0,5% des émissions totales au niveau mondial. La même étude souligne que les PC et les écrans sont bien plus énergivores puisqu’ils représentent 40% des consommations d’énergie du secteur.

Un calcul possible pourrait être arbitrairement de décider que la moitié de l’énergie consommée par les PC et les écrans sert à aller sur le web, ce qui nous ferait donc avec le chiffre des datas centers dont c’est la seule activité un chiffre de près de 1% des émissions de Co2 dues à « Internet ». L’empreinte carbone du secteur des télécommunications est d’ailleurs supposée augmenter de 60% d’ici 2030 au fur et à mesure que la planète se numérise.

Les pistes pour éviter que le secteur soit trop « sale » : la thématique de l’e-waste, qui s’occupe de tout le recyclage et retraitement des appareils informatiques (on peut ainsi récupérer des métaux précieux, ou réutiliser comme au Pérou des machines dont les potentialités ne sont que très rarement complètement exploitées), et celle des datas centers « verts ». Cette partie des cleantech vise à réduire la consommation en énergie de ces centres. A noter, les compétiteurs du secteur sont également de plus en plus actifs dans les cleantech.

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CO2 Internet Empreinte écologique Informatique

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