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Les blue-jeans détiennent peut-être la clé de l'énergie solaire à bas prix

Article publié le 28 août 2010

Les blue-jeans détiennent peut-être la clé de l'énergie solaire à bas prix

Voici une découverte typique du secteur des technologies propres : décalée, insoupçonnée, mais qui pourrait si elle est poussée à bout devenir un moyen de réduire assez fortement les coûts de productions de certaines énergies renouvelables, notamment l’énergie solaire. La solution, selon Cleantechnica, pourrait se trouver… dans une molécule du pantalon le plus populaire du monde occidental : le blue-jean.

C’est une équipe de la prestigieuse Cornell University qui a donc trouvé un moyen de développer une structure moléculaire qui pourrait servir de récepteur à l’énergie solaire. Ils ont utilisé les phthalocyanines, que l’on trouve habituellement dans les teintures pour jeans et autres vêtements et produits. L’équipe a en fait trouvé une manière nouvelle d’assembler les molécules pour parvenir à un « papier solaire », beaucoup plus flexible et potentiellement beaucoup moins cher que les panneaux solaires actuels (voir à ce sujet les autres avancées des films solaires, dont l’Empire State Building s’est équipé récemment).

Cette innovation cleantech vient succéder en fait à une réduction rapide de la taille des cellules solaires, depuis les premiers panneaux solaires aux nouveaux films solaires (dont on espère pouvoir rapidement faire des adhésifs à coller un peu partout : vitres, voitures, revêtements au soleil), jusqu’aux plus surprenantes peintures et encres solaires. Si les panneaux solaires resteront utiles pour les grands champs que l’on peut trouver dans les déserts américains ou espagnols, pour des productions de masse, ces innovations vont permettre à l’énergie solaire de conquérir de nouveaux marchés, comme l’habitat et la ville en général.

Mais revenons un peu à cette molécule du blue-jean. En fait, la phthalocyanines est une jumelle peu éloignée de la chlorophylle, dans sa structure, d’où l’intérêt que lui ont porté plusieurs équipes de recherche. L’apport de l’équipe de Cornell a été de stabiliser la molécule pour pouvoir l’exploiter de manière industrielle, en produisant des feuilles de papier solaire de manière régulière, prévisible et sans gâchis. Reste donc à trouver une autre molécule à combiner avec pour fabriquer un matériau flexible, durable et capable de collecter l’énergie solaire.



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