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Déforestation : Quelle responsabilités des pays développés ?

Article publié le 29 décembre 2009

Déforestation : Quelle responsabilités des pays développés ?

Lors du sommet de Copenhague sur le climat, il a été,- enfin-, question de la déforestation qui accable les régions à forte densité forestière comme le Brésil, le bassin du Congo (Cameroun, République Centrafricaine, Gabon, Congo et Zaire), second poumon de la planète après la forêt amazonienne, l'Indonésie et d'autres.

On constate en effet que la déforestation de ces zones s'accèlére au point que l'on prend désormais en compte cette disparition progressive dans les calculs de la "balance carbone" au titre de la diminution des capacités d'absorption en CO2 de la planète. Non seulement nous émettons de plus en plus de CO2 mais la capacité d'absorption "naturelle" de la planète diminue.

Il est facile de montrer du doigt les ex puissances coloniales,celles qui sont supposées avoir de l'argent, qui auraient pillé les dites forêts pour le commerce du bois.Malheureusement ce n'est pas une réalité aussi facile à établir et à faire accepter par l'opinion publique.Dans le cas de la forêt amazonienne, si cette déforestation s'est énormément accentuée ces dernières années c'est pour des raisons purement locales, comme l'émergence d'une forte demande de carburants d'origine agricoles ou surtout l'accroissement de la demande vivrière pour répondre à l'accroissement de la population et à la modification de son mode d'alimentation.L'élevage des bovins est en effet considéré comme responsable de 80 pct de la déforestation

Pour l'Indonésie, c'est une déforestation massive et non controlée pour produire de l'huile de palme à destination de l'exportation. Déforestation avec l'acceptation tacite des autorités de par le nombre important de responsables politiques impliqués dans cette industrie et de par la corruption qui empèche l'arrêt du phénomène.

En Afrique, grenier à bois du monde, l'industrie du bois est une industrie économiquement très importante qui fait vivre beaucoup de monde localement dans l'abattage des arbres au fin fond des forêts,dans le transport routier des grumes et dans les activités portuaires pour l'exportation finale. Les lois prévoient que l'exploitant d'un permis d'exploitation reboise à l'identique( au temps de pousse pret bien entendu). Malheureusement, l'éloignement des exploitations, l'absence de routes carrosables et l'absence de controle et de controleurs font que cette obligation est resté lettre morte. Quand bien même un controleur ferait il du zèle que la corruption règlerait le probleme, au niveau local ou à plus haut niveau.

Signalons qu'au dela de l'abattage du bois, on trouve l'industrie du meuble qui est désormais entre les mains de la Chine. Un pays émergent artisan actif de la déforestation...en dehors de son territoire. Encore au dela on trouve le consommateur final partout dans le monde mais sans aucun doute en plus grand nombre dans les pays industrialisés

Copenhague aura eu le mérite que l'on fasse le point sur le problème, que l'on sensibilise les dirigeants de ces pays et que certains,comme Lula au Brésil annoncent déjà de décisions.On peut considérer que les pays industrialisés n'ont pas grande responsabilité dans la mauvaise gestion de la forêt et de la reforestation dans ces pays et que nous n'avons pas à payer pour cette gestion et encore moins pour les corrompus qui en ont été les bénéficiaires.Il faudra néanmoins financer un jour la reforestation et comme l'aurait dit Georges Marchais, il faut prendre l'argent là où il est. Attendons nous donc la aussi à être mis lourdement à contribution en espérant que les pays émergents cette fois, y participeront.

NB On nous parle beaucoup dans les médias d'un certain retour au bois dans la construction des maisons pour cause de meilleure isolation voire même pour le chauffage domestique. Il n'est pas du tout certain que le bilan global soit si positif que cela.

Source image :


Déforestation Amazonie Copenhague huile de palme

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